Non-EU citizens living in the Netherlands may have to fulfil certain civic integration requirements and follow courses (inburgering). There are currently two scenarios where integration courses and exams may be required.
There are two different kinds of Civic Integration requirements: Basic Civic Integration, which applies only to those that need a provisional residence permit (machtiging tot voorlopig verblijf, MVV) before coming to the Netherlands, and Civic Integration according to the 2007 Civic Integration Act, which is required for most non-EU nationals living in the Netherlands. This includes speaking Dutch and having some general knowledge of the country.
EU citizens and highly skilled migrants are exempt from both types; see the respective articles below for a full list of exemptions. Anyone intending to stay in the Netherlands on a temporary basis – for example for the purposes of work, study or staff exchange – and their immediate family are also exempt from the integration requirement.