After group 8, the final year of primary school, pupils leave primary school (basisschool) for secondary school (middelbare scholen) for secondary education (voortgezet onderwijs).
Branches of secondary education
There are four branches of secondary education. A report from the primary school will advise which branch best suits the child. Children also undergo a test in group 8 to assess their aptitude. Often this is the CITO test (CITO-toets). The results of the test and the recommendation, as well as pupils’ and parents’ own preferences, determine the type of curriculum the pupil should follow at secondary school. In this system, the school’s recommendation usually outweighs the test result, unless the test result places the student in a higher curriculum type than the recommendation.
The four branches of secondary education are:
- practical education (praktijkonderwijs) for pupils who have the ability to learn a trade but for whom VMBO (see below) would be too difficult
- preparatory secondary vocational education (voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs, VMBO)
- senior general secondary education (hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs, HAVO)
- pre-university education (voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs, VWO).
Choosing a secondary school
Once the branch of secondary education has been decided, it is possible to visit the schools. Some schools only offer one branch, others several. Schools organise open days (informatiedagen) where one has the opportunity to put questions to the teachers. It does happen that a school has too many applicants and must reject some of them. It is therefore important to apply in good time and consider alternatives. Please note that it is only possible to register with one school at a time.
Amsterdam has 31 secondary schools. For more information on primary and secondary schools in Amsterdam excluding international schools, click here. A school guide (scholengids) can be obtained from your city district or municipality.
International bridging classes
If a child is relatively new to the Netherlands and would normally follow a VMBO-t, HAVO or VWO education, but his or her command of Dutch is not quite sufficient, he or she can attend an international bridging year. This year is known as kopklas and takes place between primary and secondary school. The kopklas is located in the building of a secondary school, but administratively the child remains in primary education, meaning that pupils are enrolled in the kopklas via their primary school but follow the secondary school timetable, keeping in touch with their peers. They take an admission test to see if it is appropriate for them to take part in the bridging class. Children aged four to 12 that are new to the Netherlands can attend specially designed newcomers' classes to acquaint them with Dutch language and culture.
Bilingual secondary education
Various secondary schools in and around Amsterdam offer bilingual education. These include:
The are many special schools providing lessons based on a particular pedagogical vision or religious conviction. Examples of the former are the Montessori or Steiner educational systems. There are also schools based on Catholic, Jewish, Protestant and Islamic principles. Alongside special education there are also special needs schools, directed towards handicapped children or those with behavioural problems.
Costs of secondary schooling
Secondary schools do ask for a parental contribution (ouderbijdrage). This contribution is voluntary. The cost of education is borne by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science(Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap), but there are costs for other activities, such as school trips. The level of the contribution varies per school. The contribution amounts are listed in the guide to selecting secondary schools (keuzegids middelbare scholen) (online PDF viewer; in Dutch).
As well as the parental contribution, there are the costs of text books, exercise books, other materials and excursions. These must be paid for by the parents.
The minimum number of lessons is stipulated by law: 1040 hours a year for the initial four years or initial three years in HAVO or VWO. In the final years of VMBO, HAVO and VWO the pupil must receive at least 1000 hours of tuition. This applies to every year of vocational education. In the final exam year, the number of lessons is lowered to 700. Most schools begin at 08:30, Monday to Friday. The lesson timetable determines when the day finishes.
Please note that school attendance is compulsory for children aged 5-16. If a child is often absent from school, the school will notify the municipality. As a parent you are responsible for compliance with the rules of compulsory education, and if parents consciously allow their children to miss school, they can be prosecuted. Parents and young people over the age of twelve can be fined, receive a study order (leerstraf), or, in extreme circumstances, be jailed. In the case of ‘luxury absence’ (luxeverzuim) (extra holiday during school time without permission) there is a very good chance of an official report being made. If your child has a reason to be absent, you must notify the school.
The municipality (gemeente) employs school attendance officers (leerplichtambtenaren) to check whether children are going to school. Should a student play truant for more than three consecutive days, the school is required to notify the school attendance officer. They will investigate the reason behind the absence and may take action. They can draw up an official report.
Only in exceptional situations can a child be temporarily exempted from compulsory education, e.g. if your profession makes it impossible for you to be free during the school holidays. Your employer must provide proof of this. The period of leave may not take place during the first two weeks of the school year.
Under other special circumstances, a child may also obtain leave-of-absence from their compulsory education. This is for a maximum of ten days. In cases of longer leave, the school attendance officer will decide, in consultation with the school's head teacher. Applications must be submitted to the school's management for exemptions from compulsory education.
Obtaining a diploma
If a child reaches the age of 16 and has not obtained a diploma, they must train for a qualification (kwalificatieplicht). This means they must stay at school until their 18th birthday or until they have obtained a diploma.
For more information about the school system in the Netherlands, visit the website of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, OCW). If you live in Amsterdam, find out more about choosing a secondary school on the City of Amsterdam's English-language website.