The church’s architect was Theo Molkenboer, who was a leading architect in the northern part of the Netherlands. The Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk is thought to be his best work. It was the first church he ever designed based on the principles of classical gothic construction.
As the numbers of Catholics dwindled in Amsterdam, the Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk and its convent were put up for sale. The church was purchased by the Syrian Orthodox Church in 1985. As the church interior met the requirements of the Syrian Orthodox liturgy, the original layout of the church was left intact.